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History of Western Philosophy (Routledge Classics)

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In the Middle ages, learning was in the hands of the Church and the only interest Schoolmen had in disputing each other was to show their intellectual capabilities. I regarded the early part of my History of Western Philosophy as a history of culture, but in the later parts, where science becomes important, it is more difficult to fit into this framework. The latter is of particular concern to Russell who wrote this book in the aftermath of World War II. The only clear and distinct knowledge is that I exist as a thinking thing; all the rest of certain knowledge is based on the existence of a perfect, hence good God - who, of course, wouldn't deceive us. Russell interessantemente não embarca, antes expõe o problema como um dos maiores da filosofia: paradoxalmente os pensadores mais racionalistas eram quem mais acreditava numa entidade externa, já que ao definirem o universo como um sistema lógico, em que tudo tinha de obedecer a um conjunto de regras perfeitas, matematicamente puras, os tornava reféns de uma entidade superior, a única capaz de gizar tal molde.

He himself described the text as a work of social history, asking that it be treated in such a manner.This is of course an analytic philosopher's history of western philosophy, which means that Russell presupposes that there is a single rational goal which all philosophers are seeking to reach through collective progress. Even as a first-time read this is an outstanding overview of the way great thinkers have influenced the way we think today and the still unresolved issues that, if we are serious thinkers ourselves, we still seek to resolve. Seria apenas com Darwin, e a partir do seu evolucionismo que faria surgir a teoria do Big Bang, que os racionalistas se conseguiriam desprender dessa entidade. Pode-se dizer que se aprende imenso, que no final da leitura se vê a produção de conhecimento, e os seus principais responsáveis, a uma luz totalmente distinta. Plato is a fascinating character, not least because it seems a case can be made that he became increasingly less convinced of his theory of forms as his dialogues went on.

Many of the refugees are now well into the third decade of their precarious existence in temporary settlements.Como se depreenderá, este cenário faz de Russell um racionalista, e é exatamente por isso que precisamos de ler todo o livro com algumas cautelas. O racionalismo funciona a partir de propriedades imensamente relevantes no que toca à criação de conhecimento, assente numa base em que a argumentação lógica é o cerne, contudo padece de alguns problemas. On top of this, he has a delightfully dry sense of humor, which he employs to great effect in breaking up turgid analysis. And, though you now have my opinion as well, don't let that deter you from approaching this well-written work.

In what I assume to be an attempt at avoiding obscurantism and reaching a simplicity for the layman, it seems that he has relegated subtlety for the blockish ideas of solid forms.Muitas vezes me vi obrigado a parar o audio, para poder mais tarde retomar a leitura no papel e em maior sossego para confrontar e compreender as ideias. He benefited from his mathematics, from his voracious reading of all the great philosophers before him and from his thorough mastery of the most modern scientific discoveries of our time, such as relativity and quantum mechanics. I also found the care he takes in placing these individuals, and their thought, into the flow of the historical timeline, and the current events of their day, to be quite helpful. Overall the work may act as a decent introduction to philosophy as a whole, but I personally feel you would be better off delving into the faster read and likely more honest books out there . The indications on the inside cover was that he read it in Finland in 1959 - I think he once missed a train there and the next one wasn't for a week.

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